Cajamarca is a pleasant and attractive city full of good examples of colonial architecture. The Inca Emperor Atahualpa was captured and imprisoned by Pizarro here in the Ransom Room, which can still be visited. The Santa Apolonia hill is the place where he was captured and can also be visited. The center of the city is the Plaza de Armas, where Atahualpa was executed and they are now 350 years old with the source, shrubs and gardens and a cathedral without a steeple. The many churches and mansions worth visiting. The Episcopal Palace, the Church of San Pedro and the palace of the Counts of Uceda are among the most prominent of the city.
LOCATION, EXTENSION AND POPULATION
The department of Cajamarca is located in the north of the country in the western chain of the Andes and covering mountain and forest areas. Northern borders with Ecuador, to the south with La Libertad, Amazonas to the east and west to Piura and Lambayeque. It has 13 provinces and 126 districts. It has an area of 33.248 square kilometers and a population of 1'332, 483 inhabitants. Its capital is the city of Cajamarca, located on 2.719 meters, in a beautiful and fertile valley, surrounded by a colorful landscape symphony in green, temperate, dry and sunny. Lima is the distance of 856 kilometers. The rainy season is from December to March. Other major cities are Celendín, Jaén, Chota, Cajabamba Contumazá and Cutervo.
The origin of the city of Cajamarca goes back over 3000 years with the first human groups Huacaloma, Layzón, May and Otuzco Combe. It reached its greatest development between 500 and thousand of our era as town of Cajamarca culture. Around 1450, during the rule of Inca Pachacutec, his brother Capac Yupanqui conquers the land incorporating the Tahuantinsuyo. In November 1532, Cajamarca was the site of one of the most momentous events of world history, when a group commanded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro took prisoner the Inca Atahualpa as the meeting of two worlds, the origin of the breed and new epoch in the history of Peru. The city of Cajamarca was capital of the province of the same name by Supreme Decree of 11 February 1855, given by Marshal Ramón Castilla. On 14 September 1986, the Organization of American States declared as Historical and Cultural de Las Americas.
MAIN ATTRACTIONS OF THE CAPITAL
The Plaza de Armas. It is one of the largest and most historic. It proposed the meeting of two great cultures. It is situated on the ancient plaza, where the Inca Atahualpa executed.
The Cathedral. Located next to the Plaza de Armas. Built in the seventeenth century. Its facade is a fine example of Baroque art reminiscent platerescas, with arcades, arabesques, cornices and niches. Its main altar is completely covered in gold leaf.
San Francisco Church. Part of the convent of the same name. Contains valuable pieces of iconography, images and religious paintings. It has a Museum of Colonial Religious Art.
Conjunto Monumental Belén. Built in the eighteenth century. It is a colonial monument, a great exponent of Spanish American Baroque symbol of the cultural identity of Cajamarca.
Iglesia de la Recoleta. Built in the seventeenth century and located in the populous district of San Sebastián. Shows a sober façade carved in stone and decorated by slender triple arc.
The Rescue Room. As the main monument symbolizes the meeting of two worlds and the only vestige of Inca architecture. It was the place where the captive Inca Atahualpa offered a roomful of gold and two silvers for their freedom.
Santa Apolonia hill. Splendid natural belvedere overlooking the entire valley. Also see the remains pre-Inca (Chavin) a stone altar, commonly known as "La Silla del Inca."
MAIN ATTRACTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT
Baños del Inca. Hot springs located 6 kilometers from the capital, with temperatures reaching up to 79 degrees. For the comfort of your healing owned establishments and their sources are considered one of the largest in the continent. It has a large artificial lake where you can see the breeding and fattening animals.
Rock Forest. A 14 kilometers from the city of Cajamarca. It is an impressive array of geological formations known as frailones.
Otuzco windows. Great Inca necropolis 8 kilometers from the city. It is characterized by crypts carved into rocky cliffs as a huge funeral mosaic. Most are simple niches, but some are multiple, forming corridors with side niches.
The Lick. Beautiful place in the Cajamarca countryside cattle center and seat of "The Rescue." Visited because this is done before the public the traditional tillage farmer which highlights the "call of the cow," which goes to the place of milking when called by their names.
Pariamarca. A typical small town rural environment and noted for their textiles and dyes of different colors.
Aylambo. Driven rural development center at the National University of Cajamarca. School has a Pottery Workshop which combines modern techniques with ancient skill.
Cumbemayo. Impressive complex in the foothills Cumbe. It is considered one of the most remarkable works of hydraulic engineering of pre-Hispanic America.
Combayo necropolis. Archeological site of great importance. Pre-Inca necropolis, which is characterized by the beautiful windows carved in rock, most notably the number and conservation of Otuzco.
Huanbocancha and Porcón. Communities that excel in handicrafts in stone, carved fountains, planters, tall and small ornaments.
TYPICAL DISHES AND BEVERAGES
It is said that many of the dishes are still considered traditional in Cajamarca come from the time of the Incas, some of them, however, are the product of miscegenation as a flavoring with species that were known for centuries. The best known are the spice of Cajamarca-style guinea pig, chicken broth, quinoa soup, corn soup and other soups with potatoes, corn and potato starch. Among his favorite drinks include cane rum or brandy and chicha. Also recommended to consume the various fresh cheeses and milk offered each stall or shop there.
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